Neuropathic aspects of persistent postsurgical pain: a French multicenter survey with a 6-month prospective follow-up
To investigate the role of peripheral neuropathy in the development of neuropathic postsurgical persistent pain (N-PSPP) after surgery, this French multicentric prospective cohort study recruited 3,112 patients prior to elective cesarean, inguinal herniorrhaphy (open mesh/laparoscopic), breast cancer surgery, cholecystectomy, saphenectomy, sternotomy, thoracotomy, or knee arthroscopy. Besides perioperative data collection, postoperative postal questionnaires built to assess the existence, intensity, and neuropathic features (with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions [DN4]) of pain at the site of surgery were sent at the third and sixth months after surgery. In the 2,397 patients who completed follow-up, the cumulative risk of N-PSPP within the 6 months ranged from 3.2% (laparoscopic herniorrhaphy) to 37.1% (breast cancer surgery). Pain intensity was greater if DN4 was positive and decreased with time since surgery; it depended on the type of surgery. In pain-reporting patients, the response to the DN4 changed from time to time in about 1:4 of the cases. Older age and a low anxiety score were independent protective factors of N-PSPP, whereas a recent negative event, a low preoperative quality of life, and previous history of peripheral neuropathy were risk factors. The type of anesthesia had no influence on the occurrence of N-PSPP.